Alexander Fleming - The Biologist Who Discovered the Penicillin

Alexander Fleming

Sir Alexander Fleming was a Scottish biologist, pharmacologist and botanist. He was born on 6th August 1881 in Lichfield, Scotland. His father was a rich farmer who owned a large farm there.

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Alexander Fleming had his primary education in a school close to his home and next, he attended Kilmarnock Academy in Scotland. Then he studied at polytechnic Institute, London. He had worked as a clerk for a shipping company. At that time, he saved money to study medicine. Having enough money for medical education Alexander Fleming sat the entrance examination to the medical college. He entered St. Mary’s Hospital, London. He studied for five years and passed out at the age of 25. He had obtained a Higher degree both in medicine and surgery. He could work as an assistant microbiologist in that Hospital. Few steps of promotions brought him to the position of professor of microbiology.

During world war 1 Alexander Fleming presented a revolutionary view on the treatment of the wounded soldiers. He examines the body’s cell and destroys microbes.  In 1922 he discovered a bactericide which some tissues and cells of the human body carry. Alexander Fleming named it Isozyme. His best-known discoveries are the enzyme Isozyme in 1923.

In September 1928 Alexander Fleming accidentally discovered another substance in the laboratory of the hospital. It was the world first antibiotic substance benzylpenicillin from the mould penicillium notation in 1928. Fleming named the chemical ‘penicillin and disclosed that it could be used as an antibiotic. He tried to extract the substance in a refined form from the particular mould but failed. Meanwhile two young medical researchers B. E. Chain and H. Florey picked the work from where Alexander Fleming gave up.  They succeeded in producing penicillin in a refined form. They could use it in the treatment of infections with great success.

Penicillin is a group of antibiotics that include penicillin G, penicillin V, and procaine penicillin and benzathine penicillin. People began to use it to treat infections in 1942.

Alexander Fleming, Florey and Chain were awarded the Nobel prize for medicine in 1945. Alexander Fleming wrote many articles on bacteriology, immunology and chemotherapy. The British Government Knighted Fleming for his scientific achievements in 1945. Alexander Fleming was named in Time magazine’s list of the 100 most important people of the 20th century. He was passed away on the 11th March 1995.

 John Loggie Baird

We Can't Talk About Television Without John Loggie Baird

John Loggie Baird was born on 13th August 1888 in Glasgow in Scotland. His father was a clergyman. Baird was a Scottish inventor and electrical engineer. He has demonstrated his working television system in January 1926.

John Loggie Baird had his early education in a school close to his home. Education was boring to him in school. He did not pay much attention to his studies in school. But he used to read books on science education. So, his father had to give up hope he had to make his son a clergyman. He tried to learn a subject like theology to his son. John Loggie Baird was interested in experimenting with wires, boxes and various outdoor discarded items.

How can after his basic education John entered a technical institute at Glasgow. He studied photography and electrical engineering in that Institute.  Next, he was able to enter the university of Glasgow.

After his university education, he got a job as a technical officer in a research institute. It helped him invent a genius flower.  In early 1023 and in poor health, he moved to England.  For some time later he rented a workshop in the queen’s Arcade in the town.  His main pursuit in the great city was manufacturing audio-visual equipment. He carried out an experiment in 1924. John built in his laboratory on 2nd October 1925. He successfully transmitted the first television picture with a greyscale image. John Loggie Baird accidentally transmitted the sign of a cross onto the screen a few yards away. It was a great achievement we worked day and night to win his ambition. As a result of that, he could able to make a short distance telecast. It is in the year 1928. He could put a great step in sending television images to the U.S.A. from England.

His first introduction of the telecast was soundless in 1930. It had only black and white picture images. But at the end of the year 1930, John succeeded in transmitting a television program in black and white along with the sounds. Baird was named as one of the 10 greatest scientists in history

Sir Rowland Hill

Sir Rowland Hill - Inventor of the Postage Stamp

Sir Rowland Hill was an English teacher, inventor and social reformer. He campaigned for a comprehensive reform of the postal system. It was based on the concept of Uniform penny post. He wanted to post letters pre-payment, safe, speedy, and cheap.

Rowland hill was born on the 3rd of December 1795 in Blackwell Street, England. His father was an inventor in education and politics. Rowland hill was one of six serving children of schoolmaster Thomas Wright Hill. Rowland hill’s mother was Sarah. Rowland sibling was Mathew, Arthur, Frederic, Edwin and Caroline. Rowland became a student-teacher in his father’s school when he was 12-year ages. He thought of astronomy for students. When his spare time he painted landscapes and earn money. He also worked at the Assay office in Birmingham. He used his extra money to fix Scientific Instruments. It was his hobby.

Rowland was married in 1827. His wife was Caroline Pearson. They had a son Pearson and three daughters. The daughters are named Eleanor, Clare, and Louisa.

Rowland hill wanted to make a system to send a letter cheaper. At that time the sender of the letter did not pay for the service. The bill has to pay who the reiver of the letter. He was proposing an adhesive stamp to indicate pre-payment of postage. In the year 1840, the stamp of penny Black had come to postage. It was a new way open for the post letters.  The first year of penny post the number of letters sent in the UK. It was more than double within 10 years. It was introduced within three years of the postage stamp to Switzerland and Brazil. After then it was introduced to the UK.

Rowland Hill later served as a government postal office. He credited with originating the basic concept of the modern postal service. He was the inventor of the postage stamp. His brother Edwin Hill was the first British controller of stamps from 1840-1872. He was invented a mechanical system to make envelopes. Rowland hill became a major public figure, a fellow of the Royal Society and was knighted in 1860. He died on 27th in 1879.


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